- Diplomat, high officeholder under Manuel II, John VIII, and Constantine XI (qq.v.). He was grand duke (megas doux), i.e., high admiral and mesazon (q.v.) under Constantine XI. He opposed the union of the churches (q.v.), and he is reported (by Michael Doukas [q.v.]) to have said that he preferred the Turkish turban reigning over Constantinople (q.v.) than the Latin (i.e., papal) tiara. Nevertheless, in 1453 he took responsibility for defending the walls along the Golden Horn (q.v.) during the siege of Constantinople by the Ottomans (q.v.). After the conquest of the city, he and his sons were executed by Mehmed II (q.v.).
Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . John H. Rosser .
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